## Saturday, October 29, 2011

### 171 - when energy does not equal mass x the speed of light squared

The next point is this. We're all familiar with the equation that E=mc^2. That knowledge is also courtesy Einstein and is, therefore, 'classical'. Now. Here's the thing. A photon has zero mass. That 'c' is the definitive constant that correlates to the speed of light. In effect the equation stipulates that if you want to find out the amount of potential energy in any given material - then establish its mass and multiply it by that constant - which is the speed of light. There it is again. That - HUGE light speed number. And then. Multiply that product by the speed of light AGAIN. Well. Who am I to argue? I can barely get my head around light speed - let alone a squared product. It's all a bit mind bending.

However. What do we do with this puzzle? Photons, according to my understanding - have NO MASS. Yet their velocity is light speed. So. If you then take the speed of light and multiply it with the mass of a photon - ZERO - then the product is ZERO - whether or not it's Squared or Cubed - or Quadrupled - or multiplied by any number at all. How then does one explain the energy in a photon? In truth, unless the photon has a mass of something marginally greater than zero - then it has no energy in itself to travel at any speed at all.

It's a question that - presumably - our boffins have addressed. But the explanation for this is not in layman's literature - and it is, therefore, outside of my own reference. But here's what I do know. IF light were, in fact, without any energy at all - and IF it were simply moved by some hidden force - then it would appear to be very energetic and yet it would not, necessarily, and of itself - have any innate velocity to move anywhere at all. In other words - light may, indeed be MOVED by a hidden force - and that may, by the same token account for it's extraordinary velocity. I use this analogy. We live in a box with a window and no doors. Then one day we see a balloon drift past the window - being blown by the wind. Without knowing about the wind we'd be inclined to think that the balloon has it's own energy to move it across the sky. We'd be wrong of course. In the same way? Just maybe we're also wrong about the photon. Perhaps it is moved by a hidden force. We just don't know about that force.

These comments are not meant to be frivolous. The question is out there. How do the forces interact with material and yet remain entirely hidden? Well - it all goes back to that boundary constraint 'thing'. If a photon or anything at all - responds to the hidden forces - then there must be some shared 'dimension' in space and in time - where they interact that they can respond to the forces.

That's the next subject. Hopefully I can explain it.

Kindest regards,
Rosemary

### 170 - clarification on foundational concepts

I get it that there are those of you who are trying to get into the thesis. And I also know that this is really badly explained - except, I hope - in the summary of the electromagnetic interaction that's been included in our paper.

Well - the foundational concepts are - themselves - not the easiest to express. I'm going to try and make them clearer in a series of posts here. This being the first. And the kick off must therefore relate to what is termed the 'boundary constraint'. Here's what is meant.

The analogy is this. We have a machine that throws stones. It throws this in a tunnel. There is a vacuum in the tunnel. So there's no drag from atmospheric material. But the tunnel itself is somewhere on our planet - so it's subject to the Earth's gravitational pull. Now. The machine always applies the same force to each throw. Therefore we can confidently predict that the bigger the stone then the shorter the distance of the throw. And the smaller the stone then the further the distance of the throw. And within the constraints of a standard applied force to each throw we can, eventually, determine the distance of each throw from the weight/size of that stone. That's simple.

BUT. If the stone was too big or too heavy to throw - or if the stone was too small to detect - then the machine would 'fail'. The interactive material - those stones - would now be out of range of that machine. In effect all those bigger/heavier or the smaller/lighter stones - would remain outside the boundary constraint of the machine. That's the boundary constraint. It's simply out of reach of an interactive association.

Now. Let's consider the three dimensions of our world. There is nothing that is out of reach. We can tangibly touch and interact with all its solid and liquid and gaseous material states. And, more to the point, photons can also interact with those materials that they can be made visible - again within the constraints of our eyesight which has evolved to discern a certain limited spectrum of frequency and colour. But - generally speaking - we're fairly familiar with the three dimension of our earth and its myriad forms of matter. And we can most certainly interact with it. And light can certainly define the shape, size, and even the material comprising the most of it.

Now. We also know this. A photon travels at about 186 000 miles a second. Actually it's slightly more than this but I forget the exact value. It's possibly closer to 186,300 m.p.s. It doesn't matter. The point is this. That's pretty jolly quick. In point of fact there is NOTHING that we know of that can move through space FASTER than the speed of light. Indeed. Classical physics is structured and developed around this concept as Einstein stipulated that NOTHING can exceed the speed of light. By NOTHING he included, accretions of matter, atoms and the constituent parts of the atom being the atomic particles. That's EVERYTHING. It's everything that we know or can touch, or that we can interact with. And it's most assuredly all that we can see - even through the aid of sophisticated digital equipment. For some reason - not sure why - it was determined that NOTHING CAN EXCEED THE SPEED OF LIGHT.

Here's my question. IF anything moved at faster than light speed - then HOW WOULD WE KNOW OF IT? 186 000 m.p.s is FAST. Mind boggling quick. Lickerty split. Amazing. BUT - by the same token - IF anything moved at faster than light speed - then LIGHT WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO FIND IT NOR INTERACT WITH IT. It would thereby be out of range. Outside the BOUNDARY CONSTRAINTS of light itself.

Now. We know this much. Our forces are INVISIBLE. No-one to date - with the best will in the world - and with all the benefit of all that respectable and well-funded research - has found the 'graviton' that is required to account for gravity - nor the quark that is required for the strong nuclear force - nor particle that is required for the transfer of simple charge in the electromagnetic interaction. Actually I need to say this quick. Lest I hear that HOWL of protest where all our engineers shout that the electron is the carrier particle of the electromagnetic force. My answer is simple. IT IS NOT. And my justification for this? I'll append a link to my argument - hereunder. You don't need to read all of it. Just the first page or so. It is a little known fact, but nonetheless a 'truth', that no-one can account for the forces. They have only mastered the miracle of its predictable measurements. They have not found THE THING ITSELF. They have never found 'the particle' to account for any of the measurable manifestations of the forces.

So. Back to the question. Could it be that the speed of light is actually ONLY the limit to our own measurable dimensions? We have three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. And time is intimately related to our measure of the speed of light. That's somehow satisfying. Because the minute we postulate this - then it begs another question. Could it be that there are other dimensions that remain outside of the boundary constraint of light speed? Could it be that the forces themselves operate in different dimensions of space and time? Could it be, in fact, that the forces - which we know interact with our own space/time dimensions - may, in fact interact at speeds that exceed the speed of light?

And that's the start of another rats nest of questions. But I'll leave it there for now. Just know that the speed of light has been entirely proven - is well understood and widely used in the interpretation of many science questions. It is not an arbitrary number and it is most assuredly correct - in general. It's the implications of this that perhaps need to be looked at more closely. Because the implications take us into the realm of magic which happens when we exceed light speed. And proof that light speed can be exceeded is already with us - in well tested experimental evidence from our particle wizards in their studies of particle interactions at nuclear accelerators - all over the place.

In summary, therefore, I propose that the speed of light is ONLY the boundary constraint to our own dimensions. BUT. Light speed is also a constraint that has no relevance to anything outside our own dimensions of space (3) and time (1). And as the forces are invisible to 'light' then it's possible that the forces themselves operate in alternate dimensions that are not constrained to light speed. Something greater than light speed? But- again. If the 'boundary constraint' argument is to hold - then there must be an interactive moment where the forces 'reach' our own dimensions. Else there would be no interaction. And matter - most certainly interacts with the forces. This model proposes that the 'interactive moment' occurs outside our time frame - in a time frame that precedes our own - but in a shared 'spatial' dimension. I'll get to that argument next.

And if any of this is not clear - then apologies. Let me know and I'll write it again. It's actually very, very simple. But my rendition may yet be too complex. And I really do want to make all this as clear as possible.

Kindest regards
Rosemary

here's that link - for those who are prepared to read some confrontational truths. lol